Build providers

Snapcraft, the snap-building tool, is designed to use LXD or Multipass to both simplify the build process and to confine the build environment.

LXD and Multipass are referred to as providers because they provide snapcraft with build environments.

Choosing a provider

Snapcraft supports the providers LXD and Multipass. There are a few ways to declare which provider to use.

base: core22

There are 3 ways to choose the provider. The list below is ordered by priority, so a provider specified by option #1 takes priority over the other ways to choose a provider.

  1. command-line argument --use-lxd
  2. environmental variable SNAPCRAFT_BUILD_ENVIRONMENT=<provider-name>
  3. snap configuration snap set snapcraft provider=<provider-name>

If a provider is not specified, then LXD is used as the default on Linux. On other systems (macOS and Windows), Multipass is used as the default.

base: core20 | core18 | core

There are 4 ways to choose the provider for legacy snaps. The list below is ordered by priority, so a provider specified by option #1 takes priority over the other ways to choose a provider.

  1. command-line argument --provider=<provider-name>
  2. environmental variable SNAPCRAFT_BUILD_ENVIRONMENT=<provider-name>
  3. command-line argument --use-lxd
  4. snap configuration snap set snapcraft provider=<provider-name>

If a provider is not specified, then Multipass is used as the default.

Snap configuration

The snap configuration option mentioned in the sections above is a feature of snapd.

To set the provider, run snap set snapcraft provider=<provider-name> where <provider-name> can be lxd or multipass.

To check the provider, run snap get snapcraft provider.

To unset the provider, run snap unset snapcraft provider.

Install LXD

If LXD is not installed, snapcraft will prompt the user if they’d like to automatically installed and configure LXD. If LXD is not installed while running in a non-interactive mode (running from a CI/CD pipeline), snapcraft will log an error and exit.

Recent non-desktop versions of Ubuntu install LXD by default - you can check whether it is installed with the following command:

$ lxd version

A brief overview of installation and configuration is listed below. For more details and information, see the LXD docs.

LXD can be installed via its snap:

$ sudo snap install lxd

Next, initialise LXD with the following command and accept all the default options unless you have specific requirements:

$ sudo lxd init

ⓘ If the system you are installing LXD onto is using a network with a 10.x.x.x subnet then network create may fail. Step through the following to resolve this.

Manually create a network on a 10.x.x.x subnet

If you try to run lxd init on a system that is connected to a network with a 10.x.x.x subnet, then the final step of the init* may fail with the following error:

Error: Failed to create network 'lxdbr0': Failed to automatically find an unused IPv4 subnet, manual configuration required

To resolve this issue, you must manually create the network with the following command:

$ sudo lxc network create lxdbr0 ipv4.address= ipv4.nat=true

You can then re-run lxd init. When you are prompted to create a new network bridge you must respond no.

Would you like to create a new network bridge (yes/no) [default=yes]? no

Group permissions

If you want to build snaps as a non-root user, which is advised, then you need to add your user account to the lxd group:

$ sudo usermod -a -G lxd ${USER}

You now need to either restart your session, reboot your computer, or use newgrp to acquire the new group assignment:

$ newgrp lxd

ⓘ The newgrp command will start a new sub-shell (shell within a shell) with the new lxd group assigned.

Cached LXD environment

Snapcraft uses caching to speed up build times with LXD. On the first run, snapcraft creates a generic build environment for LXD and saves it locally as a LXD image.

When building a new snap or after running snapcraft clean, this cached image is used as a starting point for the new environment.

Install Multipass

If Multipass is not installed, snapcraft will prompt the user if they’d like to automatically installed and configure Multipass. If Multipass is not installed while running in a non-interactive mode (running from a CI/CD pipeline), snapcraft will log an error and exit.

Multipass can be installed via it’s snap:

$ sudo snap install multipass

With Multipass, the default virtual machine is assigned 2 CPUs and 2GB of memory. If you have the hardware capabilities, use the following environment variables to modify CPU and memory allocation to improve performance:


ⓘ These environmental variables are not supported when building a core22 snap.

Interacting with instances

Entering the build environment

Debugging a problematic build can require entering the build environment. Snapcraft provides the commands --shell, --shell-after, and --debug to allow the developer to quickly enter a shell inside the build environment. See Iterating over a build for more details.

Cleaning the build environment

Build environments are re-used for every build of the same snap. If the snapcraft.yaml or source is changed significantly, the environment may need to be cleaned.

A build environment can be cleaned with snapcraft clean. This deletes the environment. The next time snapcraft runs, a new environment will be used.

Running snapcraft clean <part-name> only cleans directories for a particular part. The environment will still be reused.

Building manually

These instructions are intended to be only a general guide. For further details on using LXD as a container environment, see the LXD Documentation.

First, create and run a new container based on Ubuntu 22.04 LTS. Our example calls this container mysnapcraft:

$ lxc launch ubuntu:22.04 mysnapcraft

Copy your snap’s snapcraft.yaml to this new container:

$ lxc file push snap/snapcraft.yaml mysnapcraft/home/ubuntu/

Now open an interactive shell within your container and install snapcraft:

$ lxc exec mysnapcraft -- /bin/bash 
$ snap install snapcraft --classic

Finally, staying within the container, start the build by running snapcraft with the --destructive-mode argument. This forces snapcraft to build the snap directly within the current host (the mysnapcraft LXD container):

$ cd /home/ubuntu
$ snapcraft --destructive-mode

You can troubleshoot the build process just as you would on the native machine. The container is persistent and will remain until stopped and deleted.

With the build complete, you can copy your new snap to your native environment with the following command:

$ lxc file pull mysnapcraft/home/ubuntu/mysnap.snap .

It looks like you’ve copy/pasted the docs directly from to here. I’d advise against that. We’re currently in the process of re-writing some of the docs there and copy/pasting old copies around the place will leave stale docs here.

The docs you’ve copied over are also needlessly over-complicated (which is why I’m mid way through re-writing them) and will confuse new users. So I’d recommend we simplify them in one place for now.

It wasn’t a straight copy paste as the old version was out of date.

I’ve done a re-write (based on my understanding) and I’m in the process of testing the steps.

If there are simpler steps then let me know.

The docker instructions were a copy/paste.

Were are you re-writing the docs?
I thought the process was via the forums?

And just some feedback.

One of the key problems with the current docs is a lack of details.
I agree we need a broad overview but we really need to allow users to drill down into more detail.
There is far too much that is left unsaid in the name of keeping things simple.
I haven’t found the current docs very useful specifically because of this problem.


The docs are hosted at - the source for them is on github. We welcome changes to the docs. I’m mid way through re-writing some of the pages and it would be great if we could work together on those docs rather than have 2 (now 3) places for them. While Gustavo has a documentation experiment website up, the official docs have been and still are at

Agree completely.

I’ve just posted a separate forum post having a bitch about the state of the documentiation :slight_smile:

Happy to collaborate (as much as I can) but really need a decision on where/how documentation is going to be stored maintained before we do anything else.

1 Like

Sure. I appreciate you taking the time to get stuck in to fix the docs.

The fact remains is what’s linked from, and is where we point developers. Until the “experimental” site Gustavo set becomes official (or not), docs go there imo.

Having them in multiple places is (as you point out in your other thread) a confusing mess for new people. I spent some time with new developers earlier this week and this problem came up as a significant blocker. Wrong docs, docs lacking detail and too many locations for docs were all cited as on-ramp issues we need to fix.

I found the less complicated build process and have updated the doco.

So how do I contribute to the original site?

Quick question here… in the past, I have run into errors when installing a snap inside LXD. Has something changed there? I seem to remember needing to install squashfuse (but still hitting mount errors).

I have mostly been building using the deb package inside the container. (Custom lxd profile that auto installs it).

The discussion here is around building a snap using lxd as apposed to installing an existing snap into an lxd container.

I’ve not tried installing a snap into lxd so can’t help much on that front.

@popey The chance of it not becoming official is low at this point. We have some pretty good appreciation for the idea so far, including other projects interested in using the same approach, and I don’t really expect we’ll ever achieve full consensus on something like this given the context (too many people involved). The main reason why we still have an experimental label at this point is precisely that we haven’t migrated all of the content, and this is something I’d really appreciate your help on.

Also, note that the problem you describe, of copying leaving stale docs, is exactly the case on some of the content in today. Much of the documentation we have in the new experimental site existed even before the docs site was in place, and the content was taken out of the wiki, modified, split out (argh), and then not updated of course.

Another interesting data point to observe here is: someone was willing to go over and improve the documentation of the project, unprompted, out of their own interest. And they have their documentation live, today, right now. If you see any way in which that documentation could be improved, you have access to it. Just edit it, and it will be live, today as well.

That’s how good collaboration feels like. Paraphrasing, it’s the opposite of “Don’t write instructions here. Don’t copy and improve old documentation. That’s over complicated.”.

You could be doing that already, and we’ll appreciate your help. Otherwise, we’ll have to copy over the content until it’s a superset, and then we’ll replace the documentation part of the current site.

Add lxd as a supplemental group rather than primary group

In order to allow using of lxd directly by the user instead of requiring to route/gate it thro sudo each time (including indirectly when running snapcraft cleanbuild which inturn uses lxd). It is currently suggested to do

$ sudo usermod -g lxd ${USER}

But this will change the primary group of the user, is it really what is required, because this will change the group owner ship of all files/directories in the users home directory to this new group lxd, which I don’t think is correct or warranted.

Shouldn’t this be

$ sudo usermod -a -G lxd ${USER}

such that the user gets added to lxd group, but his primary group assignment doesnt change.

NOTE: I had a scare of my life, when I in the middle of experimenting with snap packages and packaging, followed this document initially blindly (my bad, but one will expect the documentation to suggest sane settings by default, for good or bad), and then next day when I was doing something listed my home files and noticed that everything was group owned by lxd. Retracing the things which I did the previous day is what made me notice this potential wrong suggestion in the document.

A different (less intrusive) approach to persistant lxd based build setup

As documented currently,

using snapcraft cleanbuild keeps recreating the build time container again and again

However the alternative suggested i.e export SNAPCRAFT_BUILD_ENVIRONMENT=lxd snapcraft requires one to allow permission to map the users uid and gid into containers created/managed/used by lxd always (i.e editing of /etc/subgid and /etc/subuid) and not just for this particular build time container.

A alternate less intrusive (but requiring some additional manual steps currently) approach could be to

a) setup a build time container
lxc launch ubuntu:xenial snap-build-myapp
lxc start snap-build-myapp
lxc shell snap-build-myapp
snap install snapcraft --classic
su ubuntu
mkdir snaps
mkdir snaps/myapp

b) copy the snap directory content from host to container using lxc file push

lxc file push snaps/myapp/snap/snapcraft.yaml snap-build-myapp/home/ubuntu/snaps/myapp/snap/
repeat for any additional support files

Or tar, push from host and untar in container.

c) run snapcraft in the container

d) pull the created snap into host from container

if the snapcraft team can use the above approach, then there is no need to do those intrusive /etc/subuid|subgid changes.

1 Like

SNAPCRAFT_BUILD_ENVIRONMENT=lxd no longer supported in recent Snapcraft releases.

I couldn’t agree more with the usermod change. I also just followed blindly. I discovered several months later and believed that my computer has been compromised. It took some time to investigate. Then I found this documentation and remembered that I tried this out months earlier.

If it really is necessary to change the primary group, then the descriptive text should be updated to reflect the command:

then you need to add your user account to the lxd group

should be updated to

then you need to change the primary login group of your user account to the lxd group

However, again, I don’t believe that is necessary

@hanishkvc @jarl-dk Thanks for escalating the issue, I’ve edited the post, please comment if it’s fine now.


It must be capital G as $ sudo usermod -a -G lxd ${USER}
not $ sudo usermod -a -g lxd ${USER}


Thanks! This is now fixed too.

1 Like

This should be updated to reflect the new --use-lxd option to snapcraft, shouldn’t it? I.e. the section on building with bases should have explain how to use --use-lxd in addition to the current explanation of manually creating an LXD container.

You’re absolutely right. I’ve updated the doc and also added the corresponding release notes for the snapcraft update (3.4) that added --use-lxd. Thank you!


Seems to work with 4.6.2? Additionally I see for example that is using it. Can the current situation be documented please? It’s tedious to have to use --use-lxd all the time when changing the snapcraft invocation command line.